• The Magnific

Myndos Gate

The city wall of ancient Halikarnassos dates from 364 B.C. The 7 km long city wall surrounds the town from the west side of the harbor to Goktepe. Castles at Salmakis to the west and Zephyrion to the east mark the junction of the city wall and the harbor. Although no traces remain of Mylasa Gate, which opened to the east, large portions of Myndos Gate survived intact. Myndos Gate was constructed of two monumental towers at either side.

Built on the valley, the western part of the city wall was fortified with towers, these measuring approximately 7x8.5 me-ters at the base. One of the towers of the Myndus gate has come down to the present day in almost its original height. The gate got its name from the antique city of Myndus, located on the extremity of the peninsula. Today it is called Dikdiri.

Arrianus, who has given a detailed description of Alexander's siege of the town mentions that the gate was a Tripillion (three-towered). Of the three towers, built with rectangular blocks of stones the one which once stood in the center has corn- pletely vanished. Arrianus also writes about the existence of a moat, 15 meters wide and 8 meters deep, in front of gate. Alexander, arriving at Halicarnassus in the fall of 334 B.C., set up his headquarters at the spot called Yoku~ba~i today. His first assault was upon the Mylasa gate of which no trace remains. The attack was repulsed with difficulty by the satrap Oron-tobates and Memnon of Rhodes. A few days later Alexander, with part of his forc-es, at~cked the Myndus gate but was again unsuccessful. He then constructed a wooden bridge over the moat and re-newed the attack on the city. This time, the Macedonians made use of siege tow-ers. The Halicarnassians sallied out and were able to burn down one of the towers and a hand to hand fight followed. The wooden bridge, unable to carry the weight of the dead, collapsed, thus causing the death of still more soldiers from both sides. The fight turned in favour of the Macedonians. The city panicked, and clos-ing the gates too early, caused the death of many of their fellow men who got trapped outside. Having suffered heavy casualties, Orontobates and Memnon re-treated to the two inner castles on the is-land and Salmacis, while sending some of their soldiers on ships to Cos. Alexander ordered the city walls and the city itself to be torn down, with the exception of the palace and the Maussolleion. Not waitin9 for the surrender of the two castles, he left a force of 3000 infantry and 200 cavalry under the command of Ptolemaios, and marched on to Phrygia.

Located on the west side of Bodrum, this is one of the two entrances of the ancient Halicarnassus. It was part of the towns wall The gate is named after Myndos because it is facing the old place Myndos (Now Gümüslük). The regional name is now 'Diktiri' or 'Dikduru', which means standing straight or upright, because it has survived more than 2.500 years. According to Arrianus, who was describing this gate and and the stage of siege of Alexander the Great in 334, this gate had originally three towers (that's why it was described as 'Tripollion'). It was also mentioned that in front of the gate was a ditch of 8 meters depth and 15 meters long. The middle part of the gate is destroyed now totally but ruins from the two other parts are still existing and made from huge and heavy square stones. Tombs were found here and opened by Newton in the last century. They dated back to Hellenistic and Roman times and were made from burned clay. When Alexander the Great in the autumn of 334 BC came to Halikarnassos, he was having his headquater somewhere around here. His first attack was towards the Milas gate, which is not more existing nowadays, but he could'nt make it. On the Halicarnassus side were fighting the Persian generals Oronbates and Memnon from Rhodos. After a couple of days he was trying it with the Myndos gate, again there was a lot of resistance. Then he was building a wooden bridge over the 8 m. ditch, packed some of his Makedonian soldiers in wooden towers and carried them close to the gate, but Halicarnassus people came out and tried to burn those towers and started fighting, but the bridge collapsed after a while and there was a big panic on both side. Despite there were many of their own warriors outside and killed, the gate was closed and Memnon and Oronbates went to the castle and the harbour and sailed to Kos. Alexander the Great was conquering the town then and destroying the place all over, just the mausoleum he didn't touch, after that he was going southwards to Phrygia.

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